Friday, May 24, 2019

Open-source mobile application development

Application Development for pinch Data Collection This wipe out the best degree project identified disasters and emergencies as a global humanitarian and technological ch in eachenge. Emergency way organizations bring for get to to accurate and up-to-date schooling ab pop the want situation, to help respond to, recover from and mitigate the effects of disasters and emergencies, present a challenge to the study of Genomics.Today the drop of remote sensing technologies presents an increase number of lotions. There are types of spatial info, however, e. G. Submerged, invasions or otherwise hidden features that still require emergency field personnel and volunteers to interpret and record. By utilizing the change magnitude ubiquity and computational power of modern smoothness, in order to reach a large number of potential users and volunteers, a energetic action for emergency field selective information collection was developed.It was developed as a component of a system t hat, In order to be as collaborative, adaptable and affable as possible, excessively to re rootage-poor organizations, was, with a minor exception, sail throughly open- spring licensed. Field trials were held that, due to low participation, could not conclusively evaluate the application and its general applicability to emergency field data collection. They did, however, offer an adequate proof-of-concept and showed that it was possible to apply the application and the Implemented system to a specific emergency field data collection task.The system has great collaborative potential, achieved through openness, mobility, beats compliance, multi-source capability and adaptability. Its administrators re given a high degree of control that lets them adapt the system to agree the flowing users and situation and its flexibility make it widely applicable, not only for emergency heed. From literature, the field trials and the experience gained while developing and using the applicat ion, some Ideas for up(a) the application and the system were discussed and some future research topics were suggested.Acknowledgements The author would like to express gratitude to his supervisors for helpful read-through, comments and suggestions and for their positive attitude which helped him believe In the project end-to-end its velveteen, his family and friends for their interest and curiosity, Sandra Person, for her support, understanding and valuable comments, and to all the participants of the Field Trials Thank YouAppendix 3 Field Trials Instructions and 63 Appendix 4 Application exploiter Guide (non-final version) Dictionary and Abbreviations API Application Programming Interface bathroom be described as a group of pre- constructed software components that developers merchant ship combine and use for creating new software. A collection of algorithms, classes and/or data structures for e. G. Performing specific tasks or communicating with other software. Disreputa bleness beg A type of request standard publish by COG (2013) and used by WFM clients to retrieve information about a specific bottom offered by the WEST.DECADE The Android application developed as a case study during this thesis project the Emergency Data Collector for Android. EEOC Emergency Operation Centre, a post where emergency wariness leadership can gather to receive and analyses information, including spatial data, and coordinate rescue and relief efforts (Cutter 2003). Excitabilitys A type of request standard published by COG (2013) and that is sent to WHAMS or WFM services to query the service for available layers, options and capabilities in general. Gadget request A type of request standard by COG (2013) that is used for requesting map images from a WHAMS.GIS Geographic Information System a system capable of managing and using spatial data, aiding in activities much(prenominal) as data collection and storage, viewing, map creation, manipulation and analysis. GEM Ge ography Markup Language, a spatial data standard published by COG (2013). For yet description see Table 3. GAPS The Global Positioning System a system of satellites that broadcast signals which allow devices with GAPS receivers to calculate their position on the Earth. Layer A layer is a digital representation of a collection of physical features, such(prenominal)(prenominal) as roads, buildings, lakes etc.Each layer consists off specific geometric type such as a Point, Line or Polygon and has common attributes, such as road length, building use category or lake area. A layer can be displayed on a map e. G. By querying a geopolitical horde. COG Open Geopolitical Consortium a consortium of organisation agencies, universities and companies that develop common open standards promoting geographic information accessibility and interoperability (COG 2013). Open-source Refers to computer software for which the license includes a number of access and use rights to its source code, defin ed by the Open Source Initiative (OSI 2013).That is, users may for example look under-the-hood of the program, modify it or any purpose and forward it to other users directly. SO Operating System a basic device software that manages platform for managing and interacting with all other applications on the device. Server Refers too geopolitical server, see take in 3, whose address can be stored in DECADE. It is a computer software system which can be sent queries over the Internet, in this case for geographic information to display on top of Google Maps, and to which data can be uploaded.SF Simple Features Specification a spatial data standard published by COG (2013). SLD Styled Layer Descriptor, an COG (2013) web map styling standard. For hike up description see Table 3. Smartened A hand-held device for mobile voice-, text- and data chat that has a fast Internet connection multiple sensors, including camera and GAPS receiver. Its hardware is powerful enough to browse web pages and run advanced computer programs (mobile applications). a good deal uses large (for hand-held phones) touch-screens. spacial data Data with a spatial component, I. E. Coordinates, that are defined by an SIRS and that bind the data to physical locations or geometric features. SIRS Spatial Reference System a system defining how coordinates relate to locations on Earth. WFM Web Feature Service, an COG (2013) web mapping interface standard for function geographic features. For further description see Table 3. WHAMS Web Map Service, an COG (2013) web mapping interface standard for serving map images. For further description see Table 3. 1. Introduction Since 1980, 2. Million people have lost their lives in the 21 000 events recorded in the most comprehensive source of natural catastrophe data in the world (Munich Re AAA, p. 49). Total global material value lost due to natural disasters during the period is estimated at 3800 thousand million IIS$, with a distinctly rising trend both n th e annual rate of loss (Maureen and evanesce 2011) and the annual frequency of inform natural disasters. In addition, technological disasters (e. G. Industrial or transport accidents) contributed with on average 9000 deaths per year during the last decade, 2002-2011 (FRI. 2012).One tool for improving emergency management is industrious access to accurate and updated information about the emergency situation or disaster. Such information can be of vital importance for emergency management to enable distribution of the right resources to the right places at the right multiplication and for proportioning the efforts which have the greatest benefit. Much of this essential information has a spatial component, such as extents and locations of damaged areas, the locations of spatial data, are useful in all phases of emergency management (Cutter 2003 Al- Shuddery 2010).There are, however, challenges to overcome in the utilization of spatial data and geographic information systems (GIS) in the context of emergency management, as recognized by e. G. Geezer and Smith (2003) and Manicurist (2005). One such challenge is providing termination makers and field workers with access to data that are accurate and sufficiently up-to-date for their specific purpose. For data that cannot be captured with remote sensing techniques, such as satellite data and aeriform photos, or stationary monitoring networks (see e. G. Liana et al. 005), emergency management organizations have to rely on field data collection by employees and/or volunteers. As pointed out by EL-Gamely et al. (2010), recent remedyments in software and hardware technology have enabled real-time access to and collection of spatial data in the field. Many groups have utilized the increasing ubiquity and capabilities of modern smoothness for developing field data collection systems (e. G. Enhances et al. 009 Clark et al. 2010 xx et al. 2010 White et al. 2011 Chem. et al. 2012 Decant et al. 2012 Went et al. 2012).Sev eral of these groups have developed such systems as open- source projects, which can potentially benefit society in terms of supporting collaboration between developers, allowing derivative work to build upon precedent achievements and allowing less resource-strong communities access to these useful data collection tools. This project builds on these notions of open access and collaboration in creating a free and open mobile GIS and field data collection system. A system that is tailored award emergency management and has a high degree of scalability and adaptability to organization-specific require.It makes use of existing open-source technologies for the server-side architecture and for the development of a mobile application, henceforth known as DECADE (the Emergency Data Collector for It only requires distribution of DECADE and the server address to those devices. 1. 1. Aim The main aim of this thesis project is to develop a mobile application as a component of a complete open -source system for emergency field data collection. A secondary aim is to evaluate the mobile application to discern whether it is applicable to emergency field data collection and how it can be improved for that purpose. 2.Background This chapter describes the context in which DECADE may operate* and why it is useful. By defining and describing disasters, emergencies and emergency management, and by outlining the role of spatial data in emergency management, the rationale behind its development is illustrated. Undertaken and examples of the technology, standards and open-source licenses available to it are presented. This will provide background for intervention about and aid in the development of the proposed system architecture and the implementation f DECADE that is presented in the System Design and Case Study chapters.The join Nations Office for Disaster Risk Reduction (UNISON) is developing a body of terminology for use by the emergency and disaster management communities. It is intended to improve the work to reduce disaster risk by making the use and understanding of common vocabulary consistent throughout the community (UNISON 2009). To help levy this common understanding this report will, where applicable, use the definitions proposed by the UNISON. 2. 1 . Disasters & Emergencies To understand the importance of emergency management and the environment in which DECADE and the proposed system (see member 3. . ) could be utilized, the nature and frequency of disasters needs some attention. The following definition of disaster is proposed by the UNISON A serious disruption of the functioning of a community or a society involving widespread human, material, economic or environmental losses and impacts, which exceeds the ability of the affected community or society to repugn using its own resources. UNISON 2009, p. 9 To study disasters, there are several database projects that record disasters and related information. Some of these databases are cr eated and managed by re- insurance companies (e. . Munich-Re and Swiss-Re). Since these companies provide insurances for other insurance providers, when disastrous events cause widespread damage, they are often gifting a significant part of the recuperation costs. Thus, in addition to e. G. Universities and political organizations, these re-insurance companies have a natural interest in studying disasters and emergency management. Table 1 Catastrophe categorization developed Jointly by Munich Re, CREED, Swiss Re, the United Nations Development Programmer (UNDO), the Asian Disaster ReductionCentre (DARK) and the United Nations Office for Disaster Risk Reduction (UNISON) in 2007. Source FRI. 2012, p. 251-252. Natural disasters Biological plant louse infestations, epidemics and animal attacks. Geophysical Earthquakes and tsunamis, volcanic eruptions and dry mass movements (avalanches, landslides, recalls and Climatologically Droughts (with associated food insecurities), extreme te mperatures and wildfires. Hydrological Floods (including waves and surges) and wet mass movements (avalanches, landslides, recalls and subsidence of hydrological origin).Meteorological Storms (divided into nine sub-categories). Technological Industrial accidents Chemical spills, relegate of industrial infrastructure, explosions, fires, gas leaks, poisoning and radiation. Transportation Transportation by air, rail, road or water. Miscellaneous Collapse of domestic or non-industrial structures, explosions and fires. Natural catastrophes are by far the most common and the most costly type of event, both in human and economic losses.According to the ME-DATA database, during 2002-2011 (not counting non-natural, non-accidental events), natural catastrophes caused almost 13 times as many deaths as technological causes and in excess of 37 times as much economic damage (FRI. 2012). Among the types of natural catastrophes, in all parts of the world meteorological and hydrological catastrophe s are the most numerous (Munich Re AAA). When it comes to fatalities, however, most are caused by geophysical events or, as in Europe and Africa, climatologically events.Asia, universeness the largest and most populated region, suffers the largest number of catastrophes, the most fatalities and the highest amount of overall economic losses, while North America alone has 65 % of the worlds insured losses (Munich Re AAA). In recent years, current and future changes in the global climate have been projected o cause meteorological, hydrological and climatologically extreme events to become more patronage or more intense in many areas (Parry et al. 2007) and an increase in the number of, as tumesce as losses from, weather-related disasters have been identified (Bower et al. 007 Maureen and Breathe 2011). However, as the work by Maureen increase in losses. It may be, as argued by Bower et al. (2007), that its mainly the increased susceptibility of human societies that is causing curre nt increases in losses, due to expansion of settlements into sensitive areas and further arbitration leading to a concentration of population and wealth at risk. In any case, the need for better resilience to catastrophic events in human societies is increasing, and significant efforts to improve emergency management before, during and after an emergency event are being made. . 2. Emergency Management DECADE and the proposed system for which it is designed are intended to be used for emergency management, which incorporates all aspects of how communities handle emergency situations. It involves risk assessments as well as planning and education for improved preparedness. It involves policies, guidelines and routines for how to organize participants and resources available, to best respond to the events homeless and for recovering efficiently in the hours, days, months and perhaps years after an event.It also involves how communities learn from mistakes and take steps to reduce futur e susceptibility to similar events. More succinctly put emergency management is The organization and management of resources and responsibilities for addressing all aspects of emergencies, in particular preparedness, answer and initial recovery steps. UNINSPIRED, p. 13 In what form emergency management is used depends on the type of emergency that is being considered, but distinguishable strategies may be more or less general in their applicability to different types of events (see Table 1).The different phases of emergency management are commonly described as forming a cycle ( compute 1 Cutter 2003 Manicurist 2005 EL-Gamely et al. 2010) with some form of categorization of the relevant emergency management activities. put down 1 depicts one such interpretation using three phases based on the definitions below. Response The provision of emergency services and public assistance during or immediately after a disaster in order to save lives, reduce health impacts, ensure public saf ety and meet the basic subsistence needs of the people affected. UNISON 2009, p. Recovery The restoration, and improvement where appropriate, of facilities, livelihoods and living conditions of disaster-affected communities, including efforts to reduce disaster risk factors. UNISON 2009, p. 23 Mitigation The lessening or limitation of the unfortunate impacts of take a chances and related disasters. Preparedness The knowledge and capacities developed by governments, professional retort and recovery organizations, communities and individuals to effectively anticipate, respond to, and recover from, the impacts of likely, imminent or current hazard events or conditions. UNISON 2009, p. 21 Preparedness can accordingly be thought of as part of the mitigation phase, although its sometimes defined as a separate fourth management phase (e. G. Abdullah and Lie 2010). The duration of the phases shown in Figure 1 can, according to the definitions above and those mentioned by Cutter (20 03) be approximated to hours to weeks for the response phase and months to years for the recovery phase. The mitigation phase lasts indefinitely or until a new emergency event occurs.As explained by Manicurist (2005) each emergency management phase should ideally be conducted in a way that facilitates success in the next phase, but in the ease of rebuilding societies in the recovery phase this is often overlooked in favor of apace restoring societies to their previous states. Emergency events can occur in many different ways, as shown in Figure 1 by the three arrows representing the emergency event. They can strike with full intensity immediately and then slowly subside, like an earthquake which is followed by smaller after-shakes.They can slowly increase in intensity until they abruptly end, like a drought becoming increasingly severe until rain comes and quickly rejuvenates vegetation and fills rivers and lakes with water again. They can strengthen and weaken gradually, eke a flo oding disaster during which the water level slowly reaches its peak and then slowly retreats again. Events can also be singular surprise events, as the figure in Cutter (2003, p. 440) might indicate, which are over before any sort of response can be organized. Such events might be e. . Sudden landslides or singular earthquakes. In line with the above definitions, the overlapping of the phases depicted in Figure 1 illustrates, first, that the response phase can begin while the emergency event is still ongoing. Second, restoration of facilities in the recovery phase can step to the fore (and might even be necessary) revived. Thirdly, it illustrates that mitigation concerns should be addressed already in the recovery phase so that the recovering society will be more resilient to future emergency events.Regarding societies resilience to catastrophes, it can be defined as The ability of a system, community or society unresolved to hazards to resist, absorb, accommodate to and recover f rom the effects of a hazard in a timely and efficient manner, including through the preservation and restoration of its essential basic structures and functions. build resilience in a society includes many kinds of activities both aimed at reverting catastrophes from occurring or reducing their impact and at improving how the society can respond to and recover from them (Table 2).A notable prevention strategy used in many countries is using land-use planning to restrict development in hazardous areas, albeit with different approaches to assessing risks and what actions to take (e. G. Contain et al. 2006 voltaic et al. 2010). Other mitigation strategies include e. G. Construction linguistic rules, warning systems, protective structures such as flood barriers (Godchild 2003 De la Cruz-Arena and Tilling 2008 Galvanic et al. 2010) and evacuation plans (Chatterers et al. 009).While many such strategies may be effective, there is also a need to ensure that plans and regulations are pr operly enforced. This is not always the case, specially in poorer countries, as discussed by Kenny (2012). Table 2 Examples of strategies for mitigating catastrophe effects and for improving response and recovery after catastrophes. The division indicates whether they aim to prevent or reduce damage or to improve handling of damage after the event. Mitigation Response and Recovery Land-use planning Insurance against losses Construction regulation Education and Awareness Warning system development Response plansProtective structures Improvement of tools for emergency management Plan and regulation enforcement SAID development for improved decision making With regard to coping with (responding to and recovering from) catastrophic events, building economic buffers to ensure the availability of resources, I. E. Insurances, is a common strategy. Munich Re (AAA) estimate that approximately a quarter of the financial losses that occurred due to natural catastrophes 1980-2012 were insured. Of these insured losses, 81 % occurred in North America and Europe (Munich Re AAA). Kenny (2012) also notes that the victims themselves still pay most of the cost

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