Thursday, October 17, 2019

Middle Eastern Studies Journal Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Middle Eastern Studies Journal - Essay Example This basic enumeration of the conflicts within the region betrays the inherent causes and motives by speaking only of the volume and frequency, and the extent of both human and financial resources (mis)directed towards the defense and invasions within the Middle East as compared to other regions of the world. These connect between wars and the military has been the largest barrier to adoption of more â€Å"liberal political practices† that are favored by Western states such as the United States and Britain. Therefore, what are the geneses of such conflicts? What roles do the military serve herein? In Western Europe, the perceived desires to create powerful military forces pushed central authorities to tighten their grip on societies and acquire resources through the imposition of taxes which was used to pay military effort. Consequently, strong centralized states emerged around militaries; the inherent nature of war therein led to protonationalism. Middle East societies have l argely been under military rule since they gained independence; whether directly or indirectly, the power wielders have uncharacteristically been military officers (Richards and Waterbury 345). ... A fundamental aspect of Middle East’s military-industrial complex is the tendency to become powerful economic enclaves unaccountable to either auditors or national assemblies (Richards and Waterbury 345). The Israeli, Turkish and Saudi-Arabia form 60% of all military expenditure in the region. Is there military weight to the GDP of the region? Certainly! 1. Military-industrial sector heavily relies on advanced technology 2. Research into the direct use and manufacture advances telecommunication, telemetry and remote sensing technology 3. Growth in the triad sectors (military, industry and research and development) is a key source of foreign exchange 4. The military-industrial sector competes against other private sectors for human and financial resources thereby increasing the aggregate efficiency of the economy People within the region seem to welcome the disproportionate public investment into defense either due to national pride or perhaps in cognizance of the inherent need to survive in an increasingly complex global geo-political atmosphere. Real expansion in defense came shortly after 1975 with Saudi-Arabia and several other Gulf members resolving to finance the Arab Military Industrialization Organization (AMIO) in producing advanced weapons for Arab states (Richards and Waterbury 345). Soon after, Iraq invaded Kuwait in 1990. This prompted a UN force led by the United States under the now famous operation â€Å"desert storm† to successfully come to the aid of Kuwait. The unmistakable presence of the United States in the Arabian affairs would once again be witnessed in 2003 when the combined force of US and Britain invaded Iraq overthrowing the Ba’athist regime under Sadam Hussein. They additionally

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