Thursday, April 4, 2019

Comparison of GDP and Inflation: Japan and Thailand

Comparison of gross domestic product and fanf ar japan and ThailandThailand That have 2 primary(prenominal) trends go away be discuss. First ace is the trend during course of studys 1996 to 1999. From years 1996 to 1999, it was a finale that Thailand created the Asiatic fiscal crisis and approach the recession from the crisis until the preservation contained. In 1996, Thailand was veneer trade stagnation be hasten a decline of consume from First World countries, and in like manner opening domestic markets to revealside m iodiny brought a deluge of short remote coronation and spurred heavy short-run take uping from abroad, fueling a create boom (http//www.encyclopedia.com/ commercialism/1G2-3406400060.html). Thailand baht was fueled by refugee detonating device and it was the starting of Asian Financial Crisis (http//www.economist.com/node/9432495). As a cosmosation, Thailand GDP was fallen down collect to the lost confidence of investors and the stagnation of export, still that was recovered quickly. IMFs Executive Board approved financial support for Thailand of up to ab bring step to the fore US$4billion over a 34-month period (IMF staff, June 2000). Thailand government also apply monetary indemnity to stable the exchange place and bringing up the preservation recovery, and fiscal policy to restructuring the saving. In 1998, Thailand GDP returned to positive growth.The second trend is years 2008 to 2010. Thailand was set active political crisis during this period. The anti-Thaskin protesters, known as discolor Shirts, stage protests for several months since May 2008, and they occupy two airports on November 2008 (CNN invigorateds, May 19 2010). The protests activities were continuous until 2010. During years 2008-2010, the Thailand economy organism tinted that the number of touristry, the number of export and nigh of the government budget spent on the safety and restoration of damaged by Yel small Shirts. Thailand e xperient negative growth of economy after the Asian Financial Crisis. It coiffe m both investors and tourism was getting away from Thailand market. In year 2009, the Global Great Recession made double tally on Thailand economy.japan lacquer economy was facing woolly-headed 20 Decades from year 1990 until 2010. lacquer was one of the best countries to grow Japan economy in 1980s. This period was also creating risque real demesne impairment and soaring Nikkei stock market. The Bank of Japan decide to tighten its monetary policy in year 1989, then soon the Nikkei stock cardhouse popped and this trio to pop real es loope bubble (Jesse Colombo, June 2012). Japan visitd frugal stagnation in the following years based on the GDP calculation. The main reasons of extend stagnation of Japanese economy in year 1990s was the stagnation of investment and stagnation of household consumption referable to the decline of household wealth, stagnation of household disposal income, and the distrust about the future(a) (Charles Yuji Horioka, March 2006).Bank of Japan implemented zero interest run policy in year 1999 to boost the economy nevertheless the situation has non improved greatly. Then, Bank of Japan introduced the quantitative easing policy in year 2000 (Yutaka Kurihara, 2014). Quantitative easing policy grab often of attention of investors and the investment start to return to capital of Japan. Japan is nominate to recover the economy since the inherent growing of Japan is quite high that they consist of broods of sayation about move technologies and high production of their export bea, although Japan was facing high debt-to-GDP ratio which is 225.9% in year 2010.ComparisonThailand happen like had a higher GDP growth rate than Japan which may kernel the Thailand economy is better than Japan. However, Japan startd Lost 20 Decades during 1990 to 2010. The GDP of Thailand also unable surpass Japan and also the potential growth of nation is lowe r than Japan too since Japan keep advanced technologies sector even in the period of Lost 20 Decades. For the current period, Japan is recovering their economy after the Lost 20 Decades.ThailandThailand r for each one two peak of inflation rate in year 1998 and also 2008. In 2 July 1997, Thailand float Thai baht and this lead Thai baht look upon de comfortd as much as 20% a record low (History Squ ared, 2011). This lead the Asian Financial Crisis, nearly of the Asian countries were involved in this crisis and led to inflation in year 1998. more(prenominal)(prenominal) or less of the Asian countries currencies were fall and led the price level rose in the period. by and by that, Thailand inflation rate decreased sharply by year 1999, and Thai government lower the interest rate that short-term interest rate fall to 2% in 1999 from 23% in the year 1997 in enounce hope to boost economy (Economic Reform in Thailand, 2013).The second inflation rate peak was move on year 2008. It was financial crisis happened on year 2008, the price of oil rose 800% since 2006 until mid-2008 (Clifford Krauss, 2008). This led price of other commodity also attach in the period until the bubble of commodity burst. The combining of an economic crisis and soaring U.S. dollar would cook commodities prices to plunge as in 2008, when commodities prices imploded by nearly half in a mere five month (Jesse Colombo, 2015). It led deflation to Thailand in year 2009 since many commodities prices fall sharply. aft(prenominal) the crisis passed, the economy return to supply and charter level.JapanIn the period of Lost 20 Decades that Japan experienced, the decreasing rate of inflation was happened in Japan. Japan government keep their effort to prevent deflation during Lost 20 Decades. That had few causes to make Japan suffer in deflation so long eon. Surplus in savings, government policy misdirection, structural impediments, Yen appreciation and global capital flow were analyseed as the causes that prolonged Japan economy recover period and led to deflation due to the research of Daniel I. Okimoto. In 1997, Japan experienced the peak of inflation rate. It was the Asian currencies crisis period since most of the Asian countries also been shanghaied by devaluation of currencies. In April 1997, Japan government rose the consumption tax rate from 3% to 5%. The economy move to deteriorate in 1998 the year 1998 recorded negative growth for the first clip since 1976 (Takatoshi Ito and Andrew K. Rose, 2006). Japan economy was thicked down that led the people consumption lesser and lesser in Japan. Deflation was continuous until year 2002 that most of the investors believe that Japan passed the Lost Decades period and start to recover Japan economy. Unfortunately, Japan economy stagnation still going on in year 2002 until 2010 that Japan people consumption still low and they save more money in bank as a result of surplus in savings. Inflation rate increased in year 2008 was the result of Global Financial Crisis, which the US lodgment bubble burst, in the situation almost uniform as expound supra in Thailand.The Japan Lost 20 Decades was believed that is past in year 2010 which the GDP growth was positive and inflation rate increase in a safe browse.ComparisonThailand has higher inflation rate growth compared with Japan. Inflation rate is meaning about a countrys growth due to the people could outgo more in the period. Japan moldiness face the inflation rate to boost the economy activities to recover the Lost 20 Decades for Japan. As the graph showing, Japan inflation rate was increasing from year 2010 until now, that means Japan has no more stagnation on their economy activities that they could boost the economy back to the standard.In contrast, Thailand was getting decreasing inflation rate from year 2010 to year 2013. Thailand unemployment rate increase due to the investments of foreign countries was shift to In dosia or Vietnam, cheap er and higher skill labor force, that made Thailand people being lamentable and slow down their consumption during 2010.Referenceshttp//www.encyclopedia.com/doc/1G2-3406400060.htmlhttps//www.imf.org/ remote/np/exr/ib/2000/062300.htmbox1http//edition.cnn.com/2010/WORLD/asiapcf/05/17/thailand. sequenceline/http//www.thebubblebubble.com/japan-bubble/https//ideas.repec.org/p/nbr/nberwo/12142.htmlhttp//www.todayscience.org/JFE/article/jfe.v2i2p77.pdfhttp//historysquared.com/2011/10/14/a-look-at-thailand-during-the-asian-financial-crises/http//finance.mapsofworld.com/economy-reform/thailand/http//www.nytimes.com/2008/10/14/business/economy/14commodities.html?pagewanted=allhttp//aparc.fsi.stanford.edu/research/causes_of_japans_economic_stagnationhttp//www.nber.org/chapters/c0092.pdf grammatical accessible structure Project decelerate Causes and EffectsConstruction Project De impersonate Causes and EffectsIn this chapter, I get out discuss types, causes and set up of impede of bug out in the saying industry. Besides that, I go away also discuss the mode to minimize the lives happening in bend industry2.2 Type of as realIn kindly structure industry, in that location are the categories of delays used in determining delay damage as shown in table 2.1 lick 2.1 Types of Delay2.2.1 justifiable delaysExcusable delay as define a delay that is due to an unforeseeable event beyond the baffleile organs or the sub avowers control. Usually, based on common commonplace provisions in state-supported agency specifications, delay resulting from the following events would be considered excusable such as fires, floods, possessor-directed changes, errors and omissions in the contract swig, unusually severe weather and etc. Excusable delays base be get ahead classified into excusable with requital and excusable without compensation.2.2.1.1 Excusable with compensationCompensation delays are caused by the owner or the owners agents. An example of this would be the briefs late release from the owners clothes protrudeer. An excusable, compensable delay normally leads to a agenda computer address and exposes the owner to financial amends claimed by the asseverator. In this scenario, the avower incurs additional indirect be for both extended field office and home office overhead and unabsorbed home office overhead.2.2.1.2 Excusable delays without compensationNon-compensable delays are caused by third parties or incidents beyond the control of both the owner and the avower. Examples typically hold acts of God, unusual weather, strikes, fires, acts of government in its sovereign capacity, etc. In this example, the contractor is normally empower to claim protraction of time however no compensation for delay damages2.2.2 Non-excusable delaysNon-excusable delays are cause by lack of performance of the contractor on the construction brook. This delay rouse be cause by underestimates of productivity, improper get a line cookery and scheduling, poor position bear offment and supervision, wrong construction methods, equipment breakdowns, treacherous subcontractors or suppliers. Therefore, it is contractor responsibilities to continue their put to make water with no entitlement to claim for extension of time or delay damages until they pure(a)d the pouch. For instance, a contractor failure to provide an adequate strong to travel outd their job.2.2.3 synchronal DelayConcurrent delay is a worry that happening on most of the construction industry objectify. This smother arises when two or more delaying event at the same time in a throw idler non complete on time. In this situation, both owner and contractor are responsible for the delay. usually concurrent delays which involve any two or more excusable delays result in extension of time. When excusable with compensation and non-excusable delays are concurrent, an extension of time seat be issued or the delay give the axe be distribution betwix t the owner and the contractor. Concurrent delay can be categories in trey types of delaysIf excusable and non-excusable delays occur concurrently, the contractor and to allow claim for extension of timeIf excusable with compensation and excusable without compensation delays occur concurrently, the contractor is entitle to claim extension of time but no delay damagesIf two excusable with compensation delays occur concurrently, the contractor is entitled to claim extension of time and delay damages.For instance, a concurrent delay would be if the owner failure to give more detail regarding both using ceramic tile or homogeneous tile for toilet spirit level canes. notwithstanding at the same time contractor made with own conclusion and using ceramic tile for toilet floor finishes but truely owner plan using homogeneous tile. In this situation, the contractor cannot claim for damages. It is because contractor is not follow owner instruction but he can claim for extension of tim e with owner failure to give more detail of drawing2.3 Causes of delays body-build 2.2 Causes of delaysBased on the researched done through by journal, books, and almost other reference. Project delay can be causes by a lot of parties which is shown in the Figure 2.2. They are imply node, contractor, adviser, repulse, actual, equipment, financial and nearly external causes.2.3.1 Caused of guest Related DelaysFigure 2.3 Factors of customer tie in delays2.3.1.1 Lack of experience of client in construction gibe to Koushki, et al. (2005) identified ingredients of lack of experiences of client in construction understand have high act upon to the causes of delays. well-nigh of the purpose delay cause by client due to not affluent experience eespecial(a)ly wise developer. Most of the time, client facing a caper and do not know how to solve it this instant because of no experience. During client finding the way to solve the difficulty, whatever of the break away could not progress. Finally, the full view delay because of virtually particular work delay.2.3.1.2 Change graze correspond to Odeh and Battaineh (2002) mentioned the genes of change orders that offer to causes of delays?. Client eternally change the design during the construction period, during the same time that lead affect solely project delay. It is because contractor cannot grant out his work until the latest drawing issue by house decorator. Consequently contractor cannot be done within the contract period. Most of the current project delay because of change order by client. For instance, a project almost complete but client change certain part of design and instruct contractor carry out the additional work. afterwards done the whole project, the contractor shew out was exceeding contract period.2.3.1.3 Client interferenceAccording to Long, et al. (2004) studied the calculates client interference that holds to causes of delays in construction project. Some of the c lient instruct contractor to carry out additional work without ask architect promise. During the contractor carry out additional work, many of the work could not progress and it give be delay immediately. On the other hand, client do not follow the turn such as did not mention architect issue an architect instruction. Finally it exiting affect the whole project delay.2.3.2 Causes of contractor related delayFigure 2.4 Factors of contractor related delay2.3.2.1 Inadequate contractor experienceAbd Majid and McCaffer (1998) studied the meanss of inadequate contractor experience as contributor to causes of delays. Long, ET al. (2004) mentioned the accompanimentors of inadequate contractor experience that contribute to causes of delays in construction project. Battaineh (2002) identified the factors of inadequate contractor experience as contributors to causes of delays. In construction industry, nigh(a) of the delay projects are facing a problem during construction period. But at the same time contractor could not solved the problem immediately because of no experience. During the contractor finding method to solve the problem, some of the works totally stop because of that problem. After the problem was solved, those work keeping continue but run out from the schedule. Finally, the whole project pull up stakes cultivate delay.2.3.2.2 in spotless time estimateAccording to Long, et al. (2004) identified the factors of inaccurate time estimating that contribute to causes of delays in construction project.? Time estimates are important as inputs into other technique used to manage and structure for all projects. An inaccurate time estimation technique may cause a project delay. For instance, in some delay project, the contractor do not allowed time for some common problem invariably happen during the construction stage such as breakdown of equipment, miss deliveries by supplies, accidents and emergencies and so on. Because of this problem the actual time w ill run out from the estimated. So, the whole project could be facing delay.2.3.2.3 Inaccurate of speak to estimateAccording to Long, et al. (2004) also mentioned that, the factors of inaccurate cost estimating that contribute to causes of delays in construction project. Construction estimating errors can be very expensive and embarrassing. Inaccurate of cost estimate contribute a lot of cause such as wrong measurements from contract drawing, using incorrect units of measure, material improperly priced and the most common mistakes in arithmetic . Sometime contractor because of inaccurate of cost estimate measurement once once again for that particular work. Finally, due to re-measurement time some of the work will trance delay and it will also affect whole project to delay.2.3.2.4 Poor identify management and supervisionBattaineh (2002) studied that, the factors of poor site management and supervision as contributors to causes of delays. Chan and Kumaraswamy (1996) identified the factors of poor site management and supervision that contribute to causes of delays. In construction industry, some of the project aggroup a lack of management and supervision due team member without any experience and skill such as fill person who are fresh graduate. one time they facing problem but do not know how to solve it. Besides that, some of the supervisor did not cooperation with their team member due to lack of communicated. Finally, because of cannot solve the problem immediately the whole project influence delay.2.3.3 Causes of Consultant Related DelaysFigure 2.5 Factors of consultant related delays2.3.3.1 Inadequate consultant experienceAccording to Long, et al. (2004) studied the factors of inadequate consultant experience as contributors to causes of delays. In construction industry, they are many consultants carry out their work without experience. Besides that, thither are many causes of a consultant without experience which include different site go overs, mismanagement and maladministration, site access restrictions, defective plan and/or specification. For instances, some of the architects only concentrated in certain part of building and do not have any experience in other type. formerly architect design on that particular type of building without experiences, he will facing a lot of mistake and no ideas during design and because of this architect will delay issue the drawing. Finally, the works cannot process and it will affect the whole project delay.2.3.3.2 Poor design and delay in designAccording to Ogunlana, et al.(1996) mentioned the factors of poor design and delay in design that contribute to causes of delays in construction project. Design is every important to any project, without sizeable design the whole project will influence delay. It is because in a project if facing poor design that will facing beat out and rebuilt again. This problem happens because of the designer lack of experience. For instance, an architect designs a column in the middle of classroom. Once the contractor without any experience and construct the work exactly shown in the drawing. Finally2.3.3.3 Incomplete drawing and detail designLong, et al. (2004) identified the factors of unelaborated drawing and detail design as contributors to causes of delays. Ogunlana, et al. (1996) studied the factors of incomplete drawing and detail design that contribute to causes of delays in construction project. During construction, the contractor is carrying out the work but because of drawing is unclear and none very detail shown in the drawing. He could not continue the work with problem, so the works have to stop immediately until get more detail of that particular drawing from consultant responds. Because of without detail drawing the work could not be progress, so it will affect the tat particular work delay and it will also influence the whole project delay.2.3.4 Causes of tire out related delaysFigure 2.6 Factors of labour relat ed delays2.3.4.1 Labour supplyAbd Majid and McCaffer (1998) identified the factors of slow labor supply that contribute to causes of delays. Odeh and Bataineh (2002) in their research identified the factors of labor supply as contributors to causes of delays. Besides material, the labour also consider as study source in the construction industry. Generally, labour are categories into two groups such as skilled workers and unskilled workers. In construction industry without labour project could not run. For instance, during construction, materials are ready to but no worker carrying out the work. During the same time because of no worker to progress of work, the project will confront project delay.2.3.4.2 Shortage of skilled workerAccording to Chan and Kumaraswamy (1996) mentioned the factor of dearth of skill labor is the most important factor that contributed to causes of delays. Skilled worker is a worker who has some special skill, knowledge and ability in his job and also gets highest grant such as plasterer, carpenter, painter, and concreter. Those skilled workers are l slanging the skills on the job. In construction, some contractors do not hire skilled workers because of higher labour cost and he employs some unskilled workers. At the same time skilled workers do not want get the job from the contractor with lower labour cost. Finally the unskilled workers could not complete the work on time. So, because of shortage of skilled worker affect whole project delay.2.3.4.3 Labor of productivityAccording to Ogunlana, et al. (1996) studied the factor of labor productivity having high influence to causes of delays. Labor of productivity principally define as output per labour hour. There are many factors that influence on the labour productivity. One of the factors is workers experience, labour with high experience and high skills in field leads to high performance at workplace. Besides that, attitude also will affect productivity of labour. For instance, a worker can lay one meter square per hour but because of lazy. Finally he using 3 hours to finish laid the brick wall. Because of this factor, the progress work delay and it will also influence the whole project delay.2.3.5 Causes of tangible related DelayFigure 2.7 Factors of material related delay2.3.5.1 Shortage of construction materialsKoushki, et al. (2005) mentioned that, factor shortage of construction material that contribute to causes of delays. Ogunlana, et al. (1996) identified the factor of shortage of material as a factor to causes of delay. Chan and Kumaraswamy (1996) studied that factors shortage of material as contributors that contribute to causes of delays. Abd Majid and McCaffer (1998) identified the factor of shortage of material that contribute to causes of delays. Material shortage is a potential source of construction delay. The major causes of material shortage is demand exceed supply. In construction have a lot type of material and the three main courses a re cement, formwork and steel bar. Besides that, material is one of the main sources in construction industry. It is because without material project cannot construct. If a project facing the material shortage problem will be delay. For instance, a project having shortage ceramic tiles even though the labours ready for tiling. In this situation, the project will facing delay project.2.3.5.2 Late delivery of materialsOgunlana, et al. (1996) identified the factor of late delivery of material as a factor to causes of delay. Abd Majid and McCaffer (1998) studied the factor of late delivery of material that contribute to causes of delays. Late delivery of material as a supplier smirch due to high market demand however the long procedure of the purchasing order from head office was complained. In construction, it factor is similar to the material shortage such as the labour ready for work but no material to do their work. Once contractor cannot receive the material on time that will be d elay work and it will also affect project delay. For example, workers want to install the windows but without frame because of late delivery to site. So, the work will be delay and it will affect project delay.2.3.5.3 Poor quality of construction materialsKoushki, et al. (2005) mentioned that factor poor quality of material that contribute to causes of delays. Ogunlana, et al. (1996) identified the factor of poor quality of material as a factor to causes of delay. Abd Majid and McCaffer (1998) studied the factor of poor quality of material that contribute to causes of delays. Poor quality of material is construct building with using poor quality of material. The contractor has intention to cheat owner to earn more profit by change the quality of material such as concrete. For instance, a contractor cast a column with using Y 20 steel bar but actual in contract drawing is Y 25. After site staff done the inspection for this column and found that the steel bar inside column is Y 20 and ask contractor demolish the column to rebuild. In this case, time taken to rebuild the column will also affect project delay.2.3.5.4 Escalation of material pricesOgunlana, et al. (1996) identified the factor of escalation of material prices as a factor to causes of delay. Wiguna and Scoot (2005) studied the factor of escalation of material prices was one factor that contribute to causes of delays. Escalation of material prices will cause shortage material in construction. It is because the market rate is keeping increasing. Some of the contractor does not buy the expensive material. During same time, the construction without material cannot run so the project will influence the project delay. For instance, a contractor because of material cost of market demands higher and does not make any order for material until material shortage. Finally, the construction cannot run without material and it will affect delay project also.2.3.6 Causes of Equipment Related DelaysFigure 2.8 Factors of Equipment related delays2.3.6.1 inferior number of equipmentAccording to Ogunlana, et al. (1998) identified the factors of insufficient numbers of equipment is the most significant factors that contribute to causes of delays. In construction stage, contractors are facing not equal machinery to produce work. It is because some of the contractors do not have a large capital to purchase that machinery due to higher cost. Once the projects carry out with not fair to middling machinery, it will influence whole project delay. For instance, at that place are two works to be done by using towel crane but in site only one towel crane available. Finally, two of work could not be done at the same time due to not enough towel cranes.2.3.6.2 Frequent equipment breakdownMcCaffer (1998) studied the factors of equipment breakdown as contributors to causes of delays. Ogunlana, et al. (1998) mentioned the factor of frequent equipment breakdown is the most significant factors that contribute to causes of delays. In construction industry, some of the machinery always breakdown due to improper using by worker such as do not follow the instruction. For instance, machinery only can support for five hundred kilograms of material but during worker using that machinery and his carry out six hundred kilograms of material. Finally, the machinery will breakdown. Once machinery breakdown, the work will be stop immediately and affect some work delay. Finally, because of machinery breakdown the whole project will also influence delay.2.3.6.3 Shortage of Equipment separateAccording to Chan and Kumaraswamy (1996) identified the factor of shortage of equipment parts that contribute to causes of delays. After machinery breakdown, the technical carry out the repair work for the breakdown of equipment. During the same time, some part of machinery none have stock in market. Because of no spare part to repair the machinery, some of the works facing stop progress immediately. Consequently, it will influence whole project to be delay.2.3.7 Causes of Financial Related DelaysFigure 2.9 Factors of Financial related delays2.3.7.1 Clients financial difficultiesAccording to Chan and Kumaraswamy (1996) identified the factors of clients financial difficulties as contributor to causes of delays. During the construction, client will face some financial problem arise from unanticipated emergencies or financial mismanagement such as global financial crisis. Besides that, a client proposes a new outgrowth without borrow term loan or bridging loan from the bank. On the other hand, improper cost planning is a most serious problem for those clients facing in current delay project. For instance, during pre-construction stage a client do not planning cost properly and he will facing a lot of problem in construction stage such as no enough capital to pay contractor earnings. Finally, because of contractor did not receive payment to influence whole project delay.2.3.7.2 Delay payment to su ppliers/subcontractorAccording to Abd Majid and McCaffer (1998) mentioned the factors of inadequate fund allocation and delay payment to subcontractor/suppliers as contributor to causes of delays in construction project. Due to sub- contractor do not take their province to done the work on time. The contractor will delay the payment until they complete the job. But at the same time, the sub-contractor refuse to work because of not yet receive payment. As a consequently, the whole project will be influence delay due to sub-contractor refuse to work.2.3.7.3 Contractors financial difficultiesAccording to Ogunlana, et al. (1996) studied the factors of contractors financial difficulties having high influence to causes of delays. Poor financial management has been known as one of the factors wherefore certain project cannot complete within contract period. Because of contractor lack of experience and could not manage their capital properly. On the other hand, because of delay payment by client contractor not enough money to cover up all sub-contractors and suppliers payment. Finally, the sub-contractor and suppliers refuse to work and supply material to the site and because of this factor the whole will influence delay.2.3.8 Causes of External Related DelaysFigure 2.10 Factors of external related delays2.3.8.1 Weather conditionOdeh and Battaineh (2002) identified the factors of weather condition as contributors to causes of delays. Long, et al. (2004) mentioned factors weather condition as factors ofexternal related delays. AL-Momani (2000) studied the factor of weather condition as contributors to causes of delays in construction project. During the construction period, weather is a factor to influence the whole project delay. It because weather condition that interfere with planned activities. Some activities can process but other cannot. For instances, during the worker cast the ground floor slab, but because of raining that particular work to be delay.2.3.8.2 Slow site clearanceAccording to Long, et al. (2004) identified factors of slow site clearance as factors of external related delays. During begin of construction stage, the responsibility party should have to carry out their work for site clearance immediately. Without clearance the site construction work cannot process. In some delay project found that, the third party did not take their responsibility to finish the site clearance within the period. Consequently, the whole project delay because of site clearance works delay.2.4 Effect of DelaysAccording to Aibinu and Jagboro (2002) identified the effects of construction delays onproject delivery in Nigerian construction industry. They also said that the six major effects of delays follow by rank which include time run down, cost occupy, dispute, arbitration, litigation, and total defection as shown in the Table 2.11Effects of DelayRankTime overrun1 embody overrun2Dispute3Arbitration4Litigation5Total Abandonment6Source Aibinu and Jagboro (2002)Table 2.11 The effect of delays2.4.1 Time overrunTime overrun it mean contractor could not carry out their work within contract period. In generally, time overrun can be categories into two group which include excusable delays and non-excusable. Once the project facing time overrun, it will affect the progress of work cannot finish on time. Besides that, the fault party will take the responsibility to pay the relevant parties for damages because of delay. For instance, during the project almost completed, but at the same time contractor because of exceptionally implement weather cannot completed the project within contract period. In this situation the contractor entitle to claim extension of time. On the other hand, if that contractor cannot complete the work within contract period due to his own fault. So the contractor no entitle to claim extension of time and he need to pay liquated damages. As stated in Persatuan Arkitek Malaysia form 2006 (PAM form 2006), which certain clauses stating about the damages by employer due to this event. It stated that in clauses below.2.3.1.1 Clause 22.1 Liquidated Damage and Certificate of Non-CompletionIf the contractor fails to complete the works by the Completion Date, and the architect is of the opinion that the same ought reasonably so to have been completed, the architect shall issue a certificate of Non- consummation. Upon the issuance of the certificate of Non-Completion the contractor shall pay or allow to the Employer a sum calculated at the rate stated in the Appendix as Liquidated remediation for the period from the Completion Date to the Date of Practical Completion. The Employer may recover such sum from the Performance Bond. The Employer shall inform the contractor in writing of such deduction or such debt due to from the contractor. The imposition of Liquated Damages by the Employer shall not be taken into account by the Architect in the issuance of payment certificates and Final Certificate, and is not subject to the set-off procedures under clause 30.4 and adjudication.2.3.1.2 Clause 23.1 Submission of notice and particulars for extension of timeIf the Contractor is of the opinion that the completion of the Work is or will be delayed beyond the completion Date by any of the Relevant Event stated in Clause 23.8, he may apply for an extension of time provided always that2.3.1.3 Clause 23.8 Relevant EventsExceptionally implement weather2.4.2 Cost overrunDuring construction stages, the client and contractor always facing of cost overrun. Cost overrunis an unhopedcostincurred in excess of a budgeted amount, due tocost underestimation. Cost overrun is related to time overrun, once a project cannot be done in time, it will also affect the cost of project over budget. Commonly, cost overrun always happen due to contractor own fault such as inaccurate of cost estimate and he need to take responsibility to pay owner loss and expense. For instance, a contractor because of impro per cost planning due to cost overrun. Finally, the owner set of his loss and expense from the contractor interim payment.2.4.3 DisputeIn construction industry, some of project delay because of dispute betwixt contractual parties such as client, consultants, contractor and some relevant parties. Those disputes because of client failure make payment to the contractor. Once dispute happen, the relevant parties will go through with mediation. The mediator will make a decision to solve the problem. But if one of the parties does not accept the decision made by mediator, the parties will appeal the decision with arbitrator. If both parties accept the decision and the fault parties will take responsibility to pay damages for project delay.2.4.4 ArbitrationIn current delay project, some of the contractual parties do not accept the mediator decision and they appeal in arbitration. Arbitrator will also make the decision to solve the problem. But if one of the parties does not accept the de cision again made by Arbitrator, they still can appeal the decision in litigation.2.4.5 LitigationIn some delay project, the relevant parties because of still do not accept with the arbitrator decision. They are appeal the result in litigation which is dispute resolution in the courts. In litigation, the parties have a trial either by a court alone or by jury. If those parties are not satisfied understanding again, then they can appeal again if they have any new evidence to proof their right. But one the parties accept with the judgment, the faulty of parties need take responsibility to pay the penalty2.4.6 Total abandonmentTotal abandonment it means the whole project stop immediately because of client facing financial difficulties. Some of the current delay project totally abandoned because of clients or contractor problem which include clients bankruptcy, contractor run away, poor marketing and sales strategies and so on. The effect of project totally abandoned will affect many p arties such as contractual parties which include contractor, consultant, sub-contractor, supplier and some other relevant parties. Besides those parties, the purchasers will also suffer in cost damages due to project abandoned.2.5 Methods of minimizing construction delaysAccording to Nguyen, et al. (2004), studied the factors that can be applied as a method of minimizing of construction delays as follows competent project manager frequent progress meeting accurate initial cost estimates accurate initial time estimates awarding bids to the right/experience consultant and contractor.? During pre-construction stage, a client should employ a depth knowledge project manager to organize a good project team member to progress the work. Besides that, the project team member should be always discussing with the problem having during the site progress. On the other hand, contractor should be employs some employee with experience such as quantity surveyor. So that, during the time or cost esti mate they can add on some unforeseen event to avoid the cost and time overrun. Furthermore, the developer should be hire some experience consultant and contractor.iot is because once they facing problem, they can refer previous project to solve the problem immediately. So, the project can process with smoothly.According to Aibinu and Jagboro (2002), identified two methods to minimize or if possible eliminate time overrun were acceleration of site activities, and contingency allowance.? During construction stages, the contractor should carry out his responsibility to make sure the work progress can complete in time. If found that work progress are not equal to the estimate schedule. The contractor may carry out with acceleration such as hire additional worker. Besides that, the client may allow contractor standby some extra cost for unforeseen event such as accidents.According to Koushki, et al. (2005), revealed that the minimization of time delays and cost overruns would require ho ld back adequate and available source of finance until project completion ensure timely delivery of materials.? During pre-construction, a client may prepare a good cash flow within the contract period. Once the client does not enough money to cover up construction cost, he can borrow a term loan or bridging loan from the bank to cover the cost until the whole project completed. It will avoid project delay due to client not enough capital. Besides that, the contractors make sure that material are order with a reliable suppliers and can receive it on time.Accorice beer Review Lipskys Notion of pathway-Level bureaucracy sake Review Lipskys Notion of Street-Level bureaucratismThe sake Review Lipskys Notion of Street-Level bureaucratism put in practiceCharlotte BindelsIntroductionBefore an interrogative of the work conducted by favorable workers who are responsible for tyke protective services within the UK can take place, it is crucial to define the concept of Street-Level Bureau cracy (SLB). What does it exactly entail and who are street-level bureaucrats? Can we safely assume that favorable workers parallel the characteristics of street-level bureaucrats or is this assumption a false one? Social workers, in general, face enormous pressure from within the lodge to perform well. There is a lot at stake and the well-being of individuals needs to be protected. Thus, how could a government quantify government impact on citizens? Many scholars are still puzzled by this marvel as it poses many discussions. Michael Lipsky, a matrimony American scholar, corporated this discussion in his work on Street-Level Bureaucracy. In his book, Street-Level Bureaucracy Dilemmas of the Individual in Public Services he introduced the abovementioned term while gaining widespread recognition.The concept is universal as the dilemmas and constraints faced by professionals operating at the street-level include various problems and challenges. But are these problems also matched to the well-disposed workers within the child protection services in the United soil?The aim of the idea is to see whether social workers of child protective services in the United Kingdom show a comparison to the notion of the Street-Level Bureaucracy example as put forward by Lipsky. This outline will include the Final Report of The Munro Review of electric shaver Protection as this report covers the recommendations to improve upon the child-centred outline and is the prime sources for this report. Another main source describes the framework of Street-Level Bureaucracy introduced in Lipskys book Street-Level Bureaucracy Dilemmas of the individual in populace services. Moreover, other concepts need to be studyd as well, in order to read the possible kin between social workers and street-level bureaucrats.Finally, this paper will determine whether the relationship between social workers as described in the Munro report and the SLB framework of Lipsky appears compatibl e or not.Conceptual FrameworkFirst and foremost, an examination is needed of the theoretical framework used by Lipsky for his book on Street-Level Bureaucracy Dilemmas of the Individual in Public Services originally published in 1980. He presents a framework that allows for comprehension of the role of public service workers when it comes to policy implementation. He argues that teachers, social workers, and judges etc. compose the essence of street-level bureaucrats. Additionally, he acknowledges that his book draws upon observations underlining incorporated behavior of public service organizations. Moreover, in his book he captures the immensity of locating the problems street-level bureaucrats face while doing their jobs. By analyzing Street-Level Bureaucracy it becomes more evident to identify commonalities and deficiencies between different operational surroundings. (Lipsky, 1980)Firstly, the term Street-Level Bureaucracy needs to be defined in order to understand the aim o f this paper. Lipsky (1980) published his book on Street-Level Bureaucracy in 1980 providing a profound study of the influence of public service workers on public policy, the so-called street-level bureaucrats. The challenge, he stresses, is to find a balance between executing their jobs with considerable finesse while also serving as policy decision-makers. Examples of street-level bureaucrats typically include workers who interact directly with citizens while carrying out their jobs. Lipsky sums up teachers, judges and police officers to illustrate his point. However, for the purpose of this paper the concentrate on will revolve around social workers as Lipsky also defines them as street-level bureaucrats. Hence, social workers must be viewed as policy shapers, not only as those who simply implement a policy.Lipsky (1980) writes that there are two ways to interpret the term of street-level bureaucrats. On the one hand, he portrays them as being equal to public services, thus hig hlighting that this is how citizens interact. On the other hand, as originally intended by Lipsky, street-level bureaucrats only interact with citizens during the course of their jobs while simultaneously exercising discretion.Another relevant concept to incorporate is the notion of social workers, as this paper also examines the Munro Review. While this may seem noncurrent it is vital to understand the characteristics of these workers. More specifically, the social workers concerned with child protection in the UK. Can they be perceived as street-level bureaucrats? The definition of social work underwent many changes throughout the years. Globalization needs to be reckoned with as social workers nowadays face many challenges to practice their knowledge in a confused world. The core definition of social work reads as follows, Hare (2004)The social work profession enkindles social change, problem-solving in human relationships, and the empowerment and liberation of people to enhan ce wellbeing. Utilizing theories of human behavior and social systems, social work intervenes at the points where people interact with their milieus. Principles of human rights and social justice are fundamental to social work. appreciation, another concept used extensively by Lipsky also needs to be explored. Lipsky (1980) regards discretion as beneficial to the policy process as it enhances policy at the grass roots level. The Oxford mental lexicon defines discretion as Thefreedomtodecidewhat should be done in aparticularsituation (Oxford online dictionary, n.d). Carrington (2005) describes discretion as a part of the decision-making process which will lead an individual to act or not to act. Moreover, he adds that these decision-makers have the freedom to decide on an action or non-action. According to Lipsky (1980) the use of discretion is critical as street-level bureaucrats communicate with citizens every day. However, this is not an easy task as dilemmas occur more frequentl y making the work of individuals within the public service complex. According to Lipsky (1980), social workers are drawn to the public service since they feel the need to dish others. The continuation of discretion has both opponents and proponents. Proponents, such as Ellis et al. (1999), see discretion as support to change up the gaps in public policy. Opponents, however, such as Baldwin view discretion as undermining official public policy (Baldwin, 1998). Thus, discretion can be viewed in different ways.The concept of discretion is highlighted by Lipsky as the characteristics of street-level bureaucrats involve high levels of discretion as well as continuous interaction with citizens. The constraints and dilemmas faced by SLBs include insufficient resources available to the workers and in order to meet the supply demands for services increase. Furthermore, the goals set out by agencies are rather ambiguous and the measurement of performance achievement turns out to be impract ical to measure. In addition, clients tend to be mostly non-voluntary. (Lipsky, 1980, p.27)Case DescriptionIn the Munro Review of Child Protection (Munro, 2011), recommendations are set out to improve upon, aiming to reform the child protection system within the United Kingdom. These recommendations are designed to eliminate the over-bureaucratization and the need for compliance and a shift towards more focus on children, hereby exploring issues and assessing the durability of the received aid.The report sums up a total of fifteen recommendations, each of those belonging to a particular subject (Munro, 2011). However, for the purpose of this paper I will only examine those that are set out in chapters three, six and seven, providing three recommendations that observe with the theoretical framework of SLB by Lipsky (1980), highlighting the effect of these propositions on the work of the child protection services.Chapter three A system that determine professional expertise symboliz es the difficulties in identifying the constraints faced by social workers and their managers. Many experience that the practice puts a heavy emphasis on compliance with management criteria and guidance. Consequently, they fail to follow the effectiveness of helping children. The recommendations value a clearer focus and a revision of the guidance. Chapter six Developing social work expertise argues that an increase in expertise of employers and individuals will positively influence the relationship with children. Chapter seven The organizational context back up effective social work practice addresses the importance of continuous reviewing (Munro, 2011).In the upcoming section I will describe the three recommendations before returning to this issue in relation to Lipskys Street Level Bureaucracy in the analysis.First, recommendation thirteen originating from chapter seven revolves around the organizational context. More specifically, it suggests that on-going reviewing and redesi gning are significant factors in the successful functioning of the child protection services in the UK. Additionally, the effectiveness of the service will increase and thus affect the social conditions of children and families (Munro, 2011).Secondly, emerging from chapter six of the Munro review, recommendation dozen considers the notion of the cooperation between the so-called HEIs, higher education institutions, and companies. The aim of this recommendation in question is to prepare upcoming social workers for their future careers within the Child Protection Services. This cooperation will thus lead to better practice placements and the application for particular teaching organization status. Furthermore, these high quality placements will determine the relationship between HEIs and employers (Munro, 2011).Third and finally, recommendation four as set out in chapter three focuses on the collection of information by local authorities and their partners. A combination of informati on stash away by both actors will have positive effects on the subsequent evaluations of performances (Munro, 2011).AnalysisIt is of importance to see whether these recommendations, as discussed above, show any resemblance or a conflict to the Framework of Street-Level Bureaucracy as set out by Lipsky. In the Munro Review it is clearly stated that the recommendations are not to be considered as separate entities, but rather reviewed as a whole (Munro, 2011, p.10). Therefore, the analysis will seek to address the aforementioned recommendations four, twelve and thirteen accordingly. A comparison will be made between the dilemmas social workers in the UK face and those of the street-level bureaucrats are they reconcilable or conflicting? Moreover, do these three suggestions contribute to solving the dilemmas street-level bureaucrats face on a daily basis?Judging from the brain of Street-Level Bureaucracy, the recommendations posed for social workers within child protection services i n the Munro Review comply with the framework initiated by Lipsky (1980).When trying to assess the work by Lipsky on SLB and the Munro report it seems as though both of them share the same problems and dilemmas. The problems and challenges faced by street-level bureaucrats and social workers seem to overlap one another rather than contradict. One clear example revolves around the lack of resources when carrying out jobs in child protection services as mentioned in the final report by Munro. The exact same applies to the street-level workers as Lipsky dedicates a whole chapter to the problem of resources in his book on Street-Level Bureaucracy (Lipsky, 1980), also described in the conceptual framework. The reconciliation of both seems to live up in general, however, is this still the case when analyzing the separate recommendations?The Munro review, as discussed in chapter three (recommendation four) aspires a more professional perspective when it comes to the child-centred system in order to preserve a clear focus on the effectiveness of helping children. Recommendation four promotes a more bottom up approach when it comes to implementing the suggestions set out by the Munro report. A combination is needed of locally- as well as nationally collected information to accomplish the goals mentioned in the recommendation. This indicates that a level of professionalism is required at the lower levels, or as Lipsky puts it, at the street-level as it will underwrite a focus of all parties involved. Lipsky argues that the limits on bureaucracy contribute to the debate that street-level bureaucrats are in fact professionals. This professionalization starts with the social worker who feels the need to act when control cannot be imposed from the outside (higher level). Some form of self-monitoring replaces the control exercised by top-level managers, underlining the fact that street-level bureaucrats exercise autonomy. (Lipsky, 1980, p.201) It becomes evident that the sug gestion as described above parallels Lipskys way of thinking.Recommendation twelve applauds cooperation between HEIs and social work students to enhance preparation for first appearance the real world of the child protection services. This demonstrates a compatibility with Lipskys foundation of Street-Level Bureaucracy. When addressing the sustainment of SLB and leadership, Lipsky mentions that in the future a New Street-Level Bureaucracy needs to be developed with particular attention to teaching and practice. The new street-level bureaucrat acknowledges the value of teaching as well as the practice involved in public services. According to Lipsky (1980, p.209)Some of their teaching ought to be done not in universities but in the field, where there is opportunity for constant confrontation with the realities of practice.Finally, recommendation thirteen stresses the importance of continuous reviewing and redesigning. The aforementioned suggestion described the New Street-Level Bure aucracy as a future for SLB. Lipsky also acknowledges that, in order to innovate, the development of enquiry and criticism should be kept in place. He also emphasizes that these processes are of an ongoing nature to promote continuous review moments. Both the Munro Review (Munro, 2011) and Lipksy state that these moments of review share a collective approach for improving the performance of street-level bureaucrats and Munros social workers (Lipsky, 1980, p. 209).Recommendation thirteen appears most viable from the perspective of the street-level bureaucrat as they illustrate that regular interaction between themselves and citizens is crucial, hereby combatting a problem faced by many street-level bureaucrats. Both recommendations four and twelve are also feasible but not in the short-term.Judging from the above, the recommendations as put forward by Munro (2011) appear compatible with the conceptualization of Lipsky (1980). However, does this hold true for all recommendations? A b rief check of the recommendations illustrates that some divergence is virtually nonexistent, as the ideas of the suggestions can be reconciled with Lipskys argumentation concerning Street-Level Bureaucracy.ConclusionStreet-Level Bureaucracy as introduced by Lipsky in the 1980s sheds an interesting light on the involvement of these bureaucrats on policy implementation and their influence. In the final report of the Munro Review of Child Protection a total of fifteen recommendations are presented in order to increase the effectiveness of the child-centred system. Essential are the social workers executing their duties in an over-bureaucratized environment according to Professor Eileen Munro. The need for more involvement and management at the front line business leader show a resemblance to Lipskys SLB Framework at first sight. However, the need to examine this more closely is the aim of the paper. Do social workers of child protective services in the United Kingdom show a resemblanc e to the Street-Level Bureaucracy Framework as coined by Lipsky or not? In other words, are they in conflict or compatible?While it might seem the case that they are compatible at the first glance, the three recommendations chosen from the Munro Review should display the same in order to demonstrate this resemblance. It is evident from the analysis that the three separate recommendations present a relationship between the social workers in child protective services and the framework of SLB by Lipsky. Especially recommendations twelve and thirteen are mentioned precisely by Lipsky as well when examining his book. Hence, the outcome is therefore simple as the relationship is apparent.As a result, the recommendations appear feasible from the perspective of SLB. In particular recommendation thirteen because continuous reviewing is something that can be applied directly generating results in the short-term.BibliographyBaldwin, M. (1998). The positive use of discretion in social work prac tice Developingpractice through co-operative inquiry. retires in Social Work Education. Volume 18 manage 2. Pp. 42-8.Carrington, K. (2005). Is There A Need for Control?. Public Administration Quarterly. Volume 29 Issue 1. Pp.140161.Department for Education. (2011). The Munro review of child protection final report. Retrieved from https//www.education.gov.uk.Ellis, K., Davis, A. and Rummery, K. (1999). Needs assessment, street-level bureaucracy and the new community care. Social Policy and Administration. Volume 33 Issue 3. Pp. 262-80.Evans, T.,Harris,J. (2004). Street-Level Bureaucracy, Social Work and the (Exaggerated) Death of Discretion. The British Journal of Social Work. Volume 34 Issue 6. Pp.871- 895. Oxford University PressHare, I. (2004). Defining social work for the 21st century The International Federation of Social Workers. International Social Work. Volume 47 Issue 3. Pp.407.Lipsky, M. (1980). Street-Level Bureaucracy Dilemmas of the individual in public services. New York, NY Russell Sage Foundation.Oxford Learners Dictionary (n.d.). Oxford Learners Dictionary. Retrieved May 12, 2015, from http//www.oxfordlearnersdictionaries.com/definition/english/discretion.

No comments:

Post a Comment